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Rambutan, Nephelium lappaceum ‘s fruits in garden …Trái Chôm Chôm trong vườn ….
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Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Chôm Chôm thường

Chụp hình ở xã Trung An , huyện Củ Chi, thành phố Hồ chí Minh, miền Nam Vietnam

Taken in Trung An ward, Củ Chi district, Hồ chí MInh city , South Vietnam

Vietnamese named : Chôm Chôm
Common names : Rambutan
Scientist name : Nephelium lappaceum L.
Synonyms : Euphoria nephelium DC., Dimocarpus crinita Lour.
Family : Sapindaceae. Họ Bồ Hòn
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Sapindales
Genus:Nephelium
Species:N. lappaceum

Links :

**** vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ch%C3%B4m_ch%C3%B4m
Chôm chôm (danh pháp khoa học: Nephelium lappaceum L.) là loài cây vùng nhiệt đới Đông Nam Á, thuộc họ Sapindaceae (họ bồ hòn). Tên gọi chôm chôm (hay lôm chôm) tượng hình cho trạng thái lông của quả loài cây này. Lông cũng là đặc tính cơ bản trong việc đặt tên của người Trung Quốc: hồng mao đan, hay của người Mã Lai: rambutan (trái có lông). Các nước phương Tây mượn giọng đọc của Mã Lai để gọi cây/trái chôm chôm: Anh, Đức gọi là rambutan, Pháp gọi là ramboutan…

Đặc tính

Cây chôm chôm có thể cao 8 tới 10 m, lá đơn, phiến lá hình trái xoan, đầu và đuôi lá nhọn, mọc cách. Lá nhỏ màu xanh non, khi già xanh đậm. Ngọn búp có lớp bao màu hơi đỏ. Hoa từng chùm ở đầu cành, đài từ 3 đến 5 mm, tỏa mùi thơm dịu. Thời gian trái chín khoảng 15-18 tuần sau khi kết quả. Mỗi chùm đậu quả độ trên dưới 20 trái. Mỗi năm chôm chôm có 1 mùa trái, nếu chăm sóc có kĩ thuật có thể cho 2 mùa trái. Mỗi cây trưởng thành có thể cho thu hoạch từ 5.000 đến 6.000 trái mỗi mùa (độ 60-70 kg).
Loài chôm chôm Nephelium lappaceum L. được gây giống ngoài 200 giống.
Chôm chôm cùng họ với vải, nhãn, giống nhau về đặc tính thực vật, phần ăn được cũng là cùi (cơm) và hương vị cũng giống nhau

Xuất xứ

Cây chôm chôm là giống cây trồng khởi nguyên ở Đông Nam Á. Ngày nay được trồng trong vùng có vĩ độ từ 15° nam tới 15° bắc gồm châu Phi, châu Đại Dương, Trung Mỹ và đặc biệt càng ngày càng gia tăng ở Úc châu và quần đảo Hawai. Cây chôm chôm thích ứng cho những vùng đất không ngập nước. Do đó, ở Việt Nam, chôm chôm được trồng chủ yếu ở các tỉnh thuộc lưu vực sông Đồng Nai và nam Trung Bộ.

Gieo trồng

Chôm chôm có thể nhân giống bằng hạt hoặc chiết cành, ghép mắt. Hoa chôm chôm hoặc có giống đực, hoặc có 2 giống, không có khả năng tự thụ phấn để tạo quả, cần có côn trùng (ong bướm) để phân nhụy.

Thu hoạch và bảo quản

Từ khi nở hoa cho đến lúc chín, cần khoảng 100- 120 ngày ở miền Nam. Mùa quả chín từ tháng 5-8. Quả chín, màu sắc vỏ thay đổi, hất hoà tan trong cùi là 17-21%. Ðộ chua (TA) tính bằng axit xitric khoảng 0,55 % và pH từ 4,0 đến 5,0. Một vườn chôm chôm thường hái làm nhiều lần, cách nhau 3-7 ngày tuỳ giống[2].
Bảo quản quả ở nhiệt độ 25 độ C, khi bảo quản trong môi trường tự nhiên, trọng lượng quả chôm chôm giảm đi rất nhanh do mất nước nhiều. Trọng lượng mất đi sau 5-8 ngày từ 22 % đến 25 %tuỳ theo giống chôm chôm. Nhiệt độc càng cao, trọng lượng mất càng nhiều. Bảo quản trong túi polyetylen (PE) trọng lượng mất ít hơn. Trong thực tế nên bảo quản ở nhiệt độ 10 độ C trong túi PE có đục lỗ, quả còn tốt bán được sau 10 ngày, và trong túi PE kín là sau 12 ngày

Lợi ích

Chôm chôm là loài cây có quả hoặc để ăn tươi, hoặc đóng hộp dưới nhiều hình thức, để dự trữ hoặc xuất khẩu. Hạt chôm chôm có thành phần dầu cao nên cũng được dùng để sản xuất dầu ăn hay xà phòng. Cây và rễ chôm chôm cũng có thể dùng cho việc sản xuất dược phẩm và màu. Ở Việt Nam, người làm vườn chôm chôm có mức thu nhập tương đối cao so với các ngành trồng trọt khác.

Các giống chôm chôm tại Việt Nam

Ở Việt Nam, việc lai tạo hoặc chọn cây ưu tú từ các giống nhập đều chưa được thực hiện[2]. Trong nước, có các quần thể sau:
Chôm chôm dính: cùi dính hạt, hương vị không ổn định[2].
Chôm chôm Giava: tên chung chỉ các giống nhập nội từ Indonesia, Thái Lan. Trồng phổ biến ở Bến Tre, Ðồng Nai, Vĩnh Long, cung cấp đại bộ phận bán quả trong nước. Ðặc tính chính là cùi không dính hạt (chôm chôm trốc) nhưng khi bóc ra, cùi lại dính với vỏ ngoài cuả hạt[2].
Chôm chôm nhãn: Quả nhỏ chỉ độ 15-20 g so với 30-40 g ở chôm chôm Giava. Gai ngắn, mã quả không đẹp. Cùi khô, giòn, hương vị tốt, giá bán cao hơn so với chôm chôm Giava. Tỉ lệ trồng còn rất thấp[2].
Gần đây mới nhập một số giống chôm chôm của Thái Lan, Malaysia nhưng chưa đủ thời gian để theo dõi và giới thiệu

**** www.khoahocchonhanong.com.vn/csdlkhcn/modules.php?name=Ne…

**** www.bentre.gov.vn/index.php?option=com_content&task=v…

**** www.dost-bentre.gov.vn/cay-trai-ben-tre/cay-chom-chom/244…

_________________________________________________________

**** www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/rambutan.html
Rambutan
Nephelium lappaceum L.
Euphoria nephelium DC.
Dimocarpus crinita Lour.

Though a close relative of the lychee and an equally desirable fruit, this member of the Sapindaceae is not nearly as well-known. Botanically, it is Nephelium lappaceum L. (syns. Euphoria nephelium DC.; Dimocarpus crinita Lour.). In the vernacular, it is generally called rambutan (in French, ramboutan or ramboutanier; in Dutch, ramboetan); occasionally in India, ramboostan. To the Chinese it is shao tzu, to Vietnamese, chom chom or vai thieu; to Kampucheans, ser mon, or chle sao mao. There are other local names in the various dialects of southeast Asia and the East Indies.

Plate XXXIV: RAMBUTAN, Nephelium lappaceum Painted by Dr. M.J. Dijkman Description
The rambutan tree reaches 50 to 80 ft (15-25 m) in height, has a straight trunk to 2 ft (60 cm) wide, and a dense, usually spreading crown. The evergreen leaves are alternate, pinnately compound, 2 3/4 to 12 in (7-30 cm) long, with reddish rachis, hairy when young, and 1 to 4 pairs of leaflets, subopposite or alternate, elliptic to oblong-elliptic, or rather obovate, sometimes oblique at the base; slightly leathery; yellowish-green to dark-green and somewhat dull on the upper surface, yellowish or bluish-green beneath; 2 to 8 in (5-20 cm) long, 1 to 4 1/3 in (2.5-11 cm) wide, the 6 to 15 pairs of principal veins prominent on the underside. The small, petalless flowers, of three kinds: males, hermaphrodite functioning as males, and hermaphrodite functioning as females, are borne in axillary or pseudo-terminal, much branched, hairy panicles. The fruit is ovoid, or ellipsoid, pinkish-red, bright-or deep-red, orange-red, maroon or dark-purple, yellowish-red, or all yellow or orange-yellow; 1 1/3 to 3 1/8 in (3.4-8 cm) long. Its thin, leathery rind is covered with tubercles from each of which extends a soft, fleshy, red, pinkish, or yellow spine 1/5 to 3/4 in (0.5-2 cm) long, the tips deciduous in some types. The somewhat hairlike covering is responsible for the common name of the fruit, which is based on the Malay word "rambut", meaning "hair". Within is the white or rose-tinted, translucent, juicy, acid, subacid or sweet flesh, 1/6 to 1/3 in (0.4-0.8 cm) thick, adhering more or less to the ovoid or oblong, somewhat flattened seed, which is 1 to 1 1/3 in (2.5-3.4 cm) long and 2/5 to 3/5 in (1-1.5 cm) wide. There may be 1 or 2 small undeveloped fruits nestled close to the stem of a mature fruit.

Climate
The rambutan flourishes from sea-level to 1,600 or even 1,800 ft (500-600 m), in tropical, humid regions having well-distributed rainfall. In the ideal environment of Oriental Mindora Philippines, the average temperature year-round is about 81º F (27.3º C), relative humidity is 82%, rainfall 71 in (180 cm)-about 165 rainy days. The dry season should not last much over 3 months.

Soil
The tree does best on deep, clay-loam or rich sandy loam rich in organic matter, or in deep peat. It needs good drainage.

Propagation
Rambutan seeds, after removal from the fruit and thorough washing, should be planted horizontally with the flattened side downward in order that the seedling will grow straight and have a normal, strong root system. Seeds will germinate in 9 to 25 days, the earlier, the more vigor in the seedling. The rate of germination of 2-day-old seeds is 87% to 95%. A week after seed removal from the fruit, there may be only 50% to 65% germination. Sun-drying for 8 hours and oven-drying at 86º F (30º C) kills seeds within a week. Washed seeds will remain viable in moist sawdust, sphagnum moss or charcoal for 3-4 weeks, and some will even sprout in storage. The juice of the flesh inhibits germination. Accordingly, unwashed seeds or seeds treated with the juice can be held for a month in moist sawdust without sprouting.
Rambutan seedlings bear in 5-6 years, but the ratio of female to male trees is 4 or 5 to 7. One Philippine seedling orchard was found to have 67% male trees. Then, too, hardly 5% of female trees give a profitable yield. Vegetative propagation is essential.
Cuttings have been rooted experimentally under mist and with the use of growth-promoting hormones, but this technique is not being practiced. Air-layering may at first appear successful, but many air-layers die after being transplanted into 5-gal containers, or, later, in the field, long after separation from the mother tree.
Marching is very effective onto 5- to 9-month-old seedlings of rambutan or of pulasan (N. mutabile L.) or N. intermedium Radlk., but is a rather cumbersome procedure. After 2 or 3 months, the scion is notched 3 times over a period of 2 weeks and then severed from the parent tree. Cleft-, splice-, and side-grafting are not too satisfactory. Patch-budding is preferred as having a much greater rate of success. Seedlings for use as rootstocks are taken from the seedbed after 45 days and transplanted into 1-quart cans with a mixture of 50% cured manure and later transferred to 5 gal containers. In Oriental Mindoro Province, if the budding is done in the month of May, they can achieve 83.6% success; if done in June and July, 82%. Budded trees flower 2 1/2 to 3 years after planting in the field.

Culture
In the Philippines, it is recommended that the trees be planted at least 33 ft (10 m) apart each way, though 40 ft (12 m) is not too much in rich soil. If the trees are set too close to each other, they will become overcrowded in a few years and production will be seriously affected.
Philippine agronomists apply 2.2 lbs (1 kg) ammonium sulfate together with 2.2 lbs (1 kg) complete fertilizer (12-24-12) per tree immediately after harvest and give the same amount of ammonium sulfate to each tree near the end of the rainy season. Studies in Malaya show that a harvest of 6,000 lbs/acre (6,720 kg/ha) of rambutan fruits removes from the soil 15 lbs/acre (approximately 15 kg/ha) nitrogen, 2 lbs/acre (2 kg/ha) phosphorus, 11.5 lbs/acre (11.5 kg/ha) potassium, 5.9 lbs/acre (5.9 kg/ha) calcium, and 2.67 lbs/acre (2.67 kg/ha) magnesium.
Irrigation is given as needed in dry seasons. Light pruning is done only to improve the form of the tree and strengthen it. Rambutan trees should be sheltered from strong winds which do much damage during the flowering and fruiting periods.

Harvesting
In Malaya, the rambutan generally fruits twice a year, the first, main crop in June and a lesser one in December. In the Philippines, flowering occurs from late March to early May and the fruits mature from July to October or occasionally to November.
The entire fruit cluster is cut from the branch by harvesters. If single fruits are picked, they should be snapped off with a piece of the stem attached, so as not to rupture the rind. The fruits must be handled carefully to avoid bruising and crushing, and kept dry, cool, and well-ventilated to delay spoilage.

Yield
Generally, shoots that bear fruit one year will put out new growth and will bloom and fruit the next year, so that biennial bearing is rare in the rambutan. However, yield may vary from year to year. Individual trees 8 years old or older have borne as much as 440 lbs (200 kg) one season and only 132 lbs (60 kg) the next. In the Philippines, the average production per tree of 21 selections was 264 lbs (120 kg) over a 4-year period, while the general average is only 106 lbs (48 kg).
From 1965 to 1967, agronomists at the College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, studied the growth, flowering habits and yield of the Indonesian cultivars, ‘Seematjan’, ‘Seenjonja’, and ‘Maharlika’. They found that all the ‘Seematjan’ flowers were hermaphrodite functioning as female (h.f.f.) and that it is necessary to plant male trees with this cultivar. ‘Seenjonja’ and ‘Maharlika’ flowers were mostly h.f.f. with a very few hermaphrodite functioning as males (h.f.m.) in the same panicles, and concluded that, though self-pollination is possible, planting of male trees with these cultivars should improve production.

Keeping Quality
Ordinarily, the fruits must be gotten to local markets within 3 days of picking before shriveling and decay begin. Fungicidal applications and packing in perforated polyethylene bags have extended fresh life somewhat. Weight loss has been reduced by packing in sawdust, or coating with a wax emulsion. Storing in sealed polyethylene bags at 40º F (10º C) and 95% relative humidity has preserved the fruits in fresh condition for 12 days. Some cultivars, as noted, keep better than others.

Pests and Diseases
Few pests or diseases have been reported by rambutan growers. Leaf-eating insects, the mealybug, Pseudococcus lilacinus, and the giant bug, Tessaratoma longicorne, may require control measures. The mango twig-borer, Niphonoclea albata, occasionally appears on rambutan trees. The Oriental fruit fly attacks very ripe fruits. Birds and flying foxes (fruit-eating bats) consume many of the fruits, probably considerably reducing yield figures.
There are several pathogens that attack the fruits and cause rotting under warm, moist conditions. Powdery mildew, caused by Oidium sp., may affect the foliage or other parts of the tree. A serious disease, stem canker, caused by Fomes lignosus in the Philippines and Ophioceras sp. in Malaya, can be fatal to rambutan trees if not controlled at the outset.

Food Uses
Rambutans are most commonly eaten out-of-hand after merely tearing the rind open, or cutting it around the middle and pulling it off. It does not cling to the flesh. The peeled fruits are occasionally stewed as dessert. They are canned in sirup on a limited scale. In Malaya a preserve is made by first boiling the peeled fruit to separate the flesh from the seeds. After cooling, the testa is discarded and the seeds are boiled alone until soft. They are combined with the flesh and plenty of sugar for about 20 minutes, and 3 cloves may be added before sealing in jars. The seeds are sometimes roasted and eaten in the Philippines, although they are reputedly poisonous when raw.

Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion*
Moisture82.3 g
Protein0.46 g
Total Carbohydrates16.02 g
Reducing Sugars2.9 g
Sucrose5.8 g
Fiber0.24g
Calcium10.6 mg
Phosphorus12.9 mg
Ascorbic Acid30 mg

*Analyses made in Ceylon.

Toxicity
There are traces of an alkaloid in the seed, and the testa contains saponin and tannin. The seeds are said to be bitter and narcotic. The fruit rind also is said to contain a toxic saponin and tannin.

Other Uses
Seed fat: the seed kernel yields 37-43% of a solid, white fat or tallow resembling cacao butter. When heated, it becomes a yellow oil having an agreeable scent. Its fatty acids are: palmitic, 2.0%; stearic, 13.8%; arachidic, 34.7%; oleic, 45.3%; and ericosenoic, 4.2%. Fully saturated glycerides amount to 1.4%. The oil could be used in making soap and candles if it were available in greater quantity.
Wood: The tree is seldom felled. However, the wood–red, reddish-white, or brownish–is suitable for construction though apt to split unless carefully dried.
Medicinal Uses: The fruit (perhaps unripe) is astringent, stomachic; acts as a vermifuge, febrifuge, and is taken to relieve diarrhea and dysentery. The leaves are poulticed on the temples to alleviate headache. In Malaya the dried fruit rind is sold in drugstores and employed in local medicine. The astringent bark decoction is a remedy for thrush. A decoction of the roots is taken as a febrifuge.

Click on link to read more, please.

**** www.stuartxchange.org/Rambutan.html
Botany
An evergreen, bushy tree, growing to a height of 20 meters, with a dense, low, round and spreading crown. Leaves are pinnately compound, 15 to 40 cm long, with 3 to 8 leaflets. The leaflet is elliptic, 7.5 to 20 cm long and 3.5 to 8 cm wide. Flowers are greenish white, fragrant, very small, without petals borne on axillary pannicles. Fruit is oblong, 4 to 5 cm long, red to yellow, covered with thick, coarse hairs or soft spines. Pulp is edible, white, opaque, translucent, juicy and sweet.

Distribution
Cultivated in most parts of the Philippines.
Parts utilized:
Roots, leaves and bark.

Chemical constituents and properties
• Seeds yield 40-48 % rambutan tallow. The insoluble fatty acids of the tallow contain about 45 percent oleic acid. The tallow contains abundant arachin, some stearin and olein. The seeds have traces of an alkaloid. The testa of the seed is toxic due to the presence of Nephelium saponin and tannin.
• Fruit is considered astringent, stomachic, vermifuge, febrifuge.

Insert
Ripe rambutan fruit.

Uses
Folkloric
Root decoction for fevers.
Leaves for poulticing.
Bark used as astringent for tongue maladies.
Fruit used for dysentery and as warm carminative in dyspepsia.
Fruit decoction used for diarrhea and dysentery.
In Malaya, astringent bark is used as remedy for thrush. Decoction of roots taken as febrifuge. source
Others
Elsewhere, seed used to extract oil; also roasted and eaten.

Studies
• Antioxidant / Antibacterial: Study yielded high amounts of phenolic compounds in the peel extracts, highest in the methanolic extract, exhibiting higher antioxidant activity than the seed extracts. All peel extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against five pathogenic bacteria.
• Phytochemicals / Monoterpene Lactones: Study isolated two new diasteromeric monoterpene lactones 1 and 2. Both underwent antimicrobial testing.
• Antioxidant in Rinds: The normally discarded rind was found to have extremely high antioxidant activity. The study of the extract revealed high phenolic content, low pro-oxidant capacity and strong antioxidant activity with cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potentials.
• Antiviral / AntiHerpes: Tested for anti HSV-1 virus activity, N lappaceum significantly affected the development of skin lesions and reduced mortality.

Availability
Cultivated.

**** www.tropilab.com/rambutan.html

Close up of flowers of Nephelium lappaceum, Rambutan ….Chụp gần hoa Chôm Chôm ….#5
Weight loss tips
Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Hoa rất nhỏ, chỉ chừng 2mm .

Flowers are very tiny, tiny , about 2mm .

Chụp hình ở xã Trung An , huyện Củ Chi, thành phố Hồ chí Minh, miền Nam Vietnam

Taken in Trung An ward, Củ Chi district, Hồ chí MInh city , South Vietnam

Vietnamese named : Chôm Chôm
Common names : Rambutan
Scientist name : Nephelium lappaceum L.
Synonyms : Euphoria nephelium DC., Dimocarpus crinita Lour.
Family : Sapindaceae. Họ Bồ Hòn
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Sapindales
Genus:Nephelium
Species:N. lappaceum

Links :

**** vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ch%C3%B4m_ch%C3%B4m
Chôm chôm (danh pháp khoa học: Nephelium lappaceum L.) là loài cây vùng nhiệt đới Đông Nam Á, thuộc họ Sapindaceae (họ bồ hòn). Tên gọi chôm chôm (hay lôm chôm) tượng hình cho trạng thái lông của quả loài cây này. Lông cũng là đặc tính cơ bản trong việc đặt tên của người Trung Quốc: hồng mao đan, hay của người Mã Lai: rambutan (trái có lông). Các nước phương Tây mượn giọng đọc của Mã Lai để gọi cây/trái chôm chôm: Anh, Đức gọi là rambutan, Pháp gọi là ramboutan…

Đặc tính

Cây chôm chôm có thể cao 8 tới 10 m, lá đơn, phiến lá hình trái xoan, đầu và đuôi lá nhọn, mọc cách. Lá nhỏ màu xanh non, khi già xanh đậm. Ngọn búp có lớp bao màu hơi đỏ. Hoa từng chùm ở đầu cành, đài từ 3 đến 5 mm, tỏa mùi thơm dịu. Thời gian trái chín khoảng 15-18 tuần sau khi kết quả. Mỗi chùm đậu quả độ trên dưới 20 trái. Mỗi năm chôm chôm có 1 mùa trái, nếu chăm sóc có kĩ thuật có thể cho 2 mùa trái. Mỗi cây trưởng thành có thể cho thu hoạch từ 5.000 đến 6.000 trái mỗi mùa (độ 60-70 kg).
Loài chôm chôm Nephelium lappaceum L. được gây giống ngoài 200 giống.
Chôm chôm cùng họ với vải, nhãn, giống nhau về đặc tính thực vật, phần ăn được cũng là cùi (cơm) và hương vị cũng giống nhau

Xuất xứ

Cây chôm chôm là giống cây trồng khởi nguyên ở Đông Nam Á. Ngày nay được trồng trong vùng có vĩ độ từ 15° nam tới 15° bắc gồm châu Phi, châu Đại Dương, Trung Mỹ và đặc biệt càng ngày càng gia tăng ở Úc châu và quần đảo Hawai. Cây chôm chôm thích ứng cho những vùng đất không ngập nước. Do đó, ở Việt Nam, chôm chôm được trồng chủ yếu ở các tỉnh thuộc lưu vực sông Đồng Nai và nam Trung Bộ.

Gieo trồng

Chôm chôm có thể nhân giống bằng hạt hoặc chiết cành, ghép mắt. Hoa chôm chôm hoặc có giống đực, hoặc có 2 giống, không có khả năng tự thụ phấn để tạo quả, cần có côn trùng (ong bướm) để phân nhụy.

Thu hoạch và bảo quản

Từ khi nở hoa cho đến lúc chín, cần khoảng 100- 120 ngày ở miền Nam. Mùa quả chín từ tháng 5-8. Quả chín, màu sắc vỏ thay đổi, hất hoà tan trong cùi là 17-21%. Ðộ chua (TA) tính bằng axit xitric khoảng 0,55 % và pH từ 4,0 đến 5,0. Một vườn chôm chôm thường hái làm nhiều lần, cách nhau 3-7 ngày tuỳ giống[2].
Bảo quản quả ở nhiệt độ 25 độ C, khi bảo quản trong môi trường tự nhiên, trọng lượng quả chôm chôm giảm đi rất nhanh do mất nước nhiều. Trọng lượng mất đi sau 5-8 ngày từ 22 % đến 25 %tuỳ theo giống chôm chôm. Nhiệt độc càng cao, trọng lượng mất càng nhiều. Bảo quản trong túi polyetylen (PE) trọng lượng mất ít hơn. Trong thực tế nên bảo quản ở nhiệt độ 10 độ C trong túi PE có đục lỗ, quả còn tốt bán được sau 10 ngày, và trong túi PE kín là sau 12 ngày

Lợi ích

Chôm chôm là loài cây có quả hoặc để ăn tươi, hoặc đóng hộp dưới nhiều hình thức, để dự trữ hoặc xuất khẩu. Hạt chôm chôm có thành phần dầu cao nên cũng được dùng để sản xuất dầu ăn hay xà phòng. Cây và rễ chôm chôm cũng có thể dùng cho việc sản xuất dược phẩm và màu. Ở Việt Nam, người làm vườn chôm chôm có mức thu nhập tương đối cao so với các ngành trồng trọt khác.

Các giống chôm chôm tại Việt Nam

Ở Việt Nam, việc lai tạo hoặc chọn cây ưu tú từ các giống nhập đều chưa được thực hiện[2]. Trong nước, có các quần thể sau:
Chôm chôm dính: cùi dính hạt, hương vị không ổn định[2].
Chôm chôm Giava: tên chung chỉ các giống nhập nội từ Indonesia, Thái Lan. Trồng phổ biến ở Bến Tre, Ðồng Nai, Vĩnh Long, cung cấp đại bộ phận bán quả trong nước. Ðặc tính chính là cùi không dính hạt (chôm chôm trốc) nhưng khi bóc ra, cùi lại dính với vỏ ngoài cuả hạt[2].
Chôm chôm nhãn: Quả nhỏ chỉ độ 15-20 g so với 30-40 g ở chôm chôm Giava. Gai ngắn, mã quả không đẹp. Cùi khô, giòn, hương vị tốt, giá bán cao hơn so với chôm chôm Giava. Tỉ lệ trồng còn rất thấp[2].
Gần đây mới nhập một số giống chôm chôm của Thái Lan, Malaysia nhưng chưa đủ thời gian để theo dõi và giới thiệu

**** www.khoahocchonhanong.com.vn/csdlkhcn/modules.php?name=Ne…

**** www.bentre.gov.vn/index.php?option=com_content&task=v…

**** www.dost-bentre.gov.vn/cay-trai-ben-tre/cay-chom-chom/244…

_________________________________________________________

**** www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/rambutan.html
Rambutan
Nephelium lappaceum L.
Euphoria nephelium DC.
Dimocarpus crinita Lour.

Though a close relative of the lychee and an equally desirable fruit, this member of the Sapindaceae is not nearly as well-known. Botanically, it is Nephelium lappaceum L. (syns. Euphoria nephelium DC.; Dimocarpus crinita Lour.). In the vernacular, it is generally called rambutan (in French, ramboutan or ramboutanier; in Dutch, ramboetan); occasionally in India, ramboostan. To the Chinese it is shao tzu, to Vietnamese, chom chom or vai thieu; to Kampucheans, ser mon, or chle sao mao. There are other local names in the various dialects of southeast Asia and the East Indies.

Plate XXXIV: RAMBUTAN, Nephelium lappaceum Painted by Dr. M.J. Dijkman Description
The rambutan tree reaches 50 to 80 ft (15-25 m) in height, has a straight trunk to 2 ft (60 cm) wide, and a dense, usually spreading crown. The evergreen leaves are alternate, pinnately compound, 2 3/4 to 12 in (7-30 cm) long, with reddish rachis, hairy when young, and 1 to 4 pairs of leaflets, subopposite or alternate, elliptic to oblong-elliptic, or rather obovate, sometimes oblique at the base; slightly leathery; yellowish-green to dark-green and somewhat dull on the upper surface, yellowish or bluish-green beneath; 2 to 8 in (5-20 cm) long, 1 to 4 1/3 in (2.5-11 cm) wide, the 6 to 15 pairs of principal veins prominent on the underside. The small, petalless flowers, of three kinds: males, hermaphrodite functioning as males, and hermaphrodite functioning as females, are borne in axillary or pseudo-terminal, much branched, hairy panicles. The fruit is ovoid, or ellipsoid, pinkish-red, bright-or deep-red, orange-red, maroon or dark-purple, yellowish-red, or all yellow or orange-yellow; 1 1/3 to 3 1/8 in (3.4-8 cm) long. Its thin, leathery rind is covered with tubercles from each of which extends a soft, fleshy, red, pinkish, or yellow spine 1/5 to 3/4 in (0.5-2 cm) long, the tips deciduous in some types. The somewhat hairlike covering is responsible for the common name of the fruit, which is based on the Malay word "rambut", meaning "hair". Within is the white or rose-tinted, translucent, juicy, acid, subacid or sweet flesh, 1/6 to 1/3 in (0.4-0.8 cm) thick, adhering more or less to the ovoid or oblong, somewhat flattened seed, which is 1 to 1 1/3 in (2.5-3.4 cm) long and 2/5 to 3/5 in (1-1.5 cm) wide. There may be 1 or 2 small undeveloped fruits nestled close to the stem of a mature fruit.

Climate
The rambutan flourishes from sea-level to 1,600 or even 1,800 ft (500-600 m), in tropical, humid regions having well-distributed rainfall. In the ideal environment of Oriental Mindora Philippines, the average temperature year-round is about 81º F (27.3º C), relative humidity is 82%, rainfall 71 in (180 cm)-about 165 rainy days. The dry season should not last much over 3 months.

Soil
The tree does best on deep, clay-loam or rich sandy loam rich in organic matter, or in deep peat. It needs good drainage.

Propagation
Rambutan seeds, after removal from the fruit and thorough washing, should be planted horizontally with the flattened side downward in order that the seedling will grow straight and have a normal, strong root system. Seeds will germinate in 9 to 25 days, the earlier, the more vigor in the seedling. The rate of germination of 2-day-old seeds is 87% to 95%. A week after seed removal from the fruit, there may be only 50% to 65% germination. Sun-drying for 8 hours and oven-drying at 86º F (30º C) kills seeds within a week. Washed seeds will remain viable in moist sawdust, sphagnum moss or charcoal for 3-4 weeks, and some will even sprout in storage. The juice of the flesh inhibits germination. Accordingly, unwashed seeds or seeds treated with the juice can be held for a month in moist sawdust without sprouting.
Rambutan seedlings bear in 5-6 years, but the ratio of female to male trees is 4 or 5 to 7. One Philippine seedling orchard was found to have 67% male trees. Then, too, hardly 5% of female trees give a profitable yield. Vegetative propagation is essential.
Cuttings have been rooted experimentally under mist and with the use of growth-promoting hormones, but this technique is not being practiced. Air-layering may at first appear successful, but many air-layers die after being transplanted into 5-gal containers, or, later, in the field, long after separation from the mother tree.
Marching is very effective onto 5- to 9-month-old seedlings of rambutan or of pulasan (N. mutabile L.) or N. intermedium Radlk., but is a rather cumbersome procedure. After 2 or 3 months, the scion is notched 3 times over a period of 2 weeks and then severed from the parent tree. Cleft-, splice-, and side-grafting are not too satisfactory. Patch-budding is preferred as having a much greater rate of success. Seedlings for use as rootstocks are taken from the seedbed after 45 days and transplanted into 1-quart cans with a mixture of 50% cured manure and later transferred to 5 gal containers. In Oriental Mindoro Province, if the budding is done in the month of May, they can achieve 83.6% success; if done in June and July, 82%. Budded trees flower 2 1/2 to 3 years after planting in the field.

Culture
In the Philippines, it is recommended that the trees be planted at least 33 ft (10 m) apart each way, though 40 ft (12 m) is not too much in rich soil. If the trees are set too close to each other, they will become overcrowded in a few years and production will be seriously affected.
Philippine agronomists apply 2.2 lbs (1 kg) ammonium sulfate together with 2.2 lbs (1 kg) complete fertilizer (12-24-12) per tree immediately after harvest and give the same amount of ammonium sulfate to each tree near the end of the rainy season. Studies in Malaya show that a harvest of 6,000 lbs/acre (6,720 kg/ha) of rambutan fruits removes from the soil 15 lbs/acre (approximately 15 kg/ha) nitrogen, 2 lbs/acre (2 kg/ha) phosphorus, 11.5 lbs/acre (11.5 kg/ha) potassium, 5.9 lbs/acre (5.9 kg/ha) calcium, and 2.67 lbs/acre (2.67 kg/ha) magnesium.
Irrigation is given as needed in dry seasons. Light pruning is done only to improve the form of the tree and strengthen it. Rambutan trees should be sheltered from strong winds which do much damage during the flowering and fruiting periods.

Harvesting
In Malaya, the rambutan generally fruits twice a year, the first, main crop in June and a lesser one in December. In the Philippines, flowering occurs from late March to early May and the fruits mature from July to October or occasionally to November.
The entire fruit cluster is cut from the branch by harvesters. If single fruits are picked, they should be snapped off with a piece of the stem attached, so as not to rupture the rind. The fruits must be handled carefully to avoid bruising and crushing, and kept dry, cool, and well-ventilated to delay spoilage.

Yield
Generally, shoots that bear fruit one year will put out new growth and will bloom and fruit the next year, so that biennial bearing is rare in the rambutan. However, yield may vary from year to year. Individual trees 8 years old or older have borne as much as 440 lbs (200 kg) one season and only 132 lbs (60 kg) the next. In the Philippines, the average production per tree of 21 selections was 264 lbs (120 kg) over a 4-year period, while the general average is only 106 lbs (48 kg).
From 1965 to 1967, agronomists at the College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, studied the growth, flowering habits and yield of the Indonesian cultivars, ‘Seematjan’, ‘Seenjonja’, and ‘Maharlika’. They found that all the ‘Seematjan’ flowers were hermaphrodite functioning as female (h.f.f.) and that it is necessary to plant male trees with this cultivar. ‘Seenjonja’ and ‘Maharlika’ flowers were mostly h.f.f. with a very few hermaphrodite functioning as males (h.f.m.) in the same panicles, and concluded that, though self-pollination is possible, planting of male trees with these cultivars should improve production.

Keeping Quality
Ordinarily, the fruits must be gotten to local markets within 3 days of picking before shriveling and decay begin. Fungicidal applications and packing in perforated polyethylene bags have extended fresh life somewhat. Weight loss has been reduced by packing in sawdust, or coating with a wax emulsion. Storing in sealed polyethylene bags at 40º F (10º C) and 95% relative humidity has preserved the fruits in fresh condition for 12 days. Some cultivars, as noted, keep better than others.

Pests and Diseases
Few pests or diseases have been reported by rambutan growers. Leaf-eating insects, the mealybug, Pseudococcus lilacinus, and the giant bug, Tessaratoma longicorne, may require control measures. The mango twig-borer, Niphonoclea albata, occasionally appears on rambutan trees. The Oriental fruit fly attacks very ripe fruits. Birds and flying foxes (fruit-eating bats) consume many of the fruits, probably considerably reducing yield figures.
There are several pathogens that attack the fruits and cause rotting under warm, moist conditions. Powdery mildew, caused by Oidium sp., may affect the foliage or other parts of the tree. A serious disease, stem canker, caused by Fomes lignosus in the Philippines and Ophioceras sp. in Malaya, can be fatal to rambutan trees if not controlled at the outset.

Food Uses
Rambutans are most commonly eaten out-of-hand after merely tearing the rind open, or cutting it around the middle and pulling it off. It does not cling to the flesh. The peeled fruits are occasionally stewed as dessert. They are canned in sirup on a limited scale. In Malaya a preserve is made by first boiling the peeled fruit to separate the flesh from the seeds. After cooling, the testa is discarded and the seeds are boiled alone until soft. They are combined with the flesh and plenty of sugar for about 20 minutes, and 3 cloves may be added before sealing in jars. The seeds are sometimes roasted and eaten in the Philippines, although they are reputedly poisonous when raw.

Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion*
Moisture82.3 g
Protein0.46 g
Total Carbohydrates16.02 g
Reducing Sugars2.9 g
Sucrose5.8 g
Fiber0.24g
Calcium10.6 mg
Phosphorus12.9 mg
Ascorbic Acid30 mg

*Analyses made in Ceylon.

Toxicity
There are traces of an alkaloid in the seed, and the testa contains saponin and tannin. The seeds are said to be bitter and narcotic. The fruit rind also is said to contain a toxic saponin and tannin.

Other Uses
Seed fat: the seed kernel yields 37-43% of a solid, white fat or tallow resembling cacao butter. When heated, it becomes a yellow oil having an agreeable scent. Its fatty acids are: palmitic, 2.0%; stearic, 13.8%; arachidic, 34.7%; oleic, 45.3%; and ericosenoic, 4.2%. Fully saturated glycerides amount to 1.4%. The oil could be used in making soap and candles if it were available in greater quantity.
Wood: The tree is seldom felled. However, the wood–red, reddish-white, or brownish–is suitable for construction though apt to split unless carefully dried.
Medicinal Uses: The fruit (perhaps unripe) is astringent, stomachic; acts as a vermifuge, febrifuge, and is taken to relieve diarrhea and dysentery. The leaves are poulticed on the temples to alleviate headache. In Malaya the dried fruit rind is sold in drugstores and employed in local medicine. The astringent bark decoction is a remedy for thrush. A decoction of the roots is taken as a febrifuge.

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**** www.stuartxchange.org/Rambutan.html
Botany
An evergreen, bushy tree, growing to a height of 20 meters, with a dense, low, round and spreading crown. Leaves are pinnately compound, 15 to 40 cm long, with 3 to 8 leaflets. The leaflet is elliptic, 7.5 to 20 cm long and 3.5 to 8 cm wide. Flowers are greenish white, fragrant, very small, without petals borne on axillary pannicles. Fruit is oblong, 4 to 5 cm long, red to yellow, covered with thick, coarse hairs or soft spines. Pulp is edible, white, opaque, translucent, juicy and sweet.

Distribution
Cultivated in most parts of the Philippines.
Parts utilized:
Roots, leaves and bark.

Chemical constituents and properties
• Seeds yield 40-48 % rambutan tallow. The insoluble fatty acids of the tallow contain about 45 percent oleic acid. The tallow contains abundant arachin, some stearin and olein. The seeds have traces of an alkaloid. The testa of the seed is toxic due to the presence of Nephelium saponin and tannin.
• Fruit is considered astringent, stomachic, vermifuge, febrifuge.

Insert
Ripe rambutan fruit.

Uses
Folkloric
Root decoction for fevers.
Leaves for poulticing.
Bark used as astringent for tongue maladies.
Fruit used for dysentery and as warm carminative in dyspepsia.
Fruit decoction used for diarrhea and dysentery.
In Malaya, astringent bark is used as remedy for thrush. Decoction of roots taken as febrifuge. source
Others
Elsewhere, seed used to extract oil; also roasted and eaten.

Studies
• Antioxidant / Antibacterial: Study yielded high amounts of phenolic compounds in the peel extracts, highest in the methanolic extract, exhibiting higher antioxidant activity than the seed extracts. All peel extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against five pathogenic bacteria.
• Phytochemicals / Monoterpene Lactones: Study isolated two new diasteromeric monoterpene lactones 1 and 2. Both underwent antimicrobial testing.
• Antioxidant in Rinds: The normally discarded rind was found to have extremely high antioxidant activity. The study of the extract revealed high phenolic content, low pro-oxidant capacity and strong antioxidant activity with cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potentials.
• Antiviral / AntiHerpes: Tested for anti HSV-1 virus activity, N lappaceum significantly affected the development of skin lesions and reduced mortality.

Availability
Cultivated.

**** www.tropilab.com/rambutan.html

Close up of flowers of Nephelium lappaceum, Rambutan ….Chụp gần hoa Chôm Chôm ….#6
Weight loss tips
Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Hoa rất nhỏ, chỉ chừng 2mm .

Flowers are very tiny, tiny , about 2mm .

Chụp hình ở xã Trung An , huyện Củ Chi, thành phố Hồ chí Minh, miền Nam Vietnam

Taken in Trung An ward, Củ Chi district, Hồ chí MInh city , South Vietnam

Vietnamese named : Chôm Chôm
Common names : Rambutan
Scientist name : Nephelium lappaceum L.
Synonyms : Euphoria nephelium DC., Dimocarpus crinita Lour.
Family : Sapindaceae. Họ Bồ Hòn
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Sapindales
Genus:Nephelium
Species:N. lappaceum

Links :

**** vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ch%C3%B4m_ch%C3%B4m
Chôm chôm (danh pháp khoa học: Nephelium lappaceum L.) là loài cây vùng nhiệt đới Đông Nam Á, thuộc họ Sapindaceae (họ bồ hòn). Tên gọi chôm chôm (hay lôm chôm) tượng hình cho trạng thái lông của quả loài cây này. Lông cũng là đặc tính cơ bản trong việc đặt tên của người Trung Quốc: hồng mao đan, hay của người Mã Lai: rambutan (trái có lông). Các nước phương Tây mượn giọng đọc của Mã Lai để gọi cây/trái chôm chôm: Anh, Đức gọi là rambutan, Pháp gọi là ramboutan…

Đặc tính

Cây chôm chôm có thể cao 8 tới 10 m, lá đơn, phiến lá hình trái xoan, đầu và đuôi lá nhọn, mọc cách. Lá nhỏ màu xanh non, khi già xanh đậm. Ngọn búp có lớp bao màu hơi đỏ. Hoa từng chùm ở đầu cành, đài từ 3 đến 5 mm, tỏa mùi thơm dịu. Thời gian trái chín khoảng 15-18 tuần sau khi kết quả. Mỗi chùm đậu quả độ trên dưới 20 trái. Mỗi năm chôm chôm có 1 mùa trái, nếu chăm sóc có kĩ thuật có thể cho 2 mùa trái. Mỗi cây trưởng thành có thể cho thu hoạch từ 5.000 đến 6.000 trái mỗi mùa (độ 60-70 kg).
Loài chôm chôm Nephelium lappaceum L. được gây giống ngoài 200 giống.
Chôm chôm cùng họ với vải, nhãn, giống nhau về đặc tính thực vật, phần ăn được cũng là cùi (cơm) và hương vị cũng giống nhau

Xuất xứ

Cây chôm chôm là giống cây trồng khởi nguyên ở Đông Nam Á. Ngày nay được trồng trong vùng có vĩ độ từ 15° nam tới 15° bắc gồm châu Phi, châu Đại Dương, Trung Mỹ và đặc biệt càng ngày càng gia tăng ở Úc châu và quần đảo Hawai. Cây chôm chôm thích ứng cho những vùng đất không ngập nước. Do đó, ở Việt Nam, chôm chôm được trồng chủ yếu ở các tỉnh thuộc lưu vực sông Đồng Nai và nam Trung Bộ.

Gieo trồng

Chôm chôm có thể nhân giống bằng hạt hoặc chiết cành, ghép mắt. Hoa chôm chôm hoặc có giống đực, hoặc có 2 giống, không có khả năng tự thụ phấn để tạo quả, cần có côn trùng (ong bướm) để phân nhụy.

Thu hoạch và bảo quản

Từ khi nở hoa cho đến lúc chín, cần khoảng 100- 120 ngày ở miền Nam. Mùa quả chín từ tháng 5-8. Quả chín, màu sắc vỏ thay đổi, hất hoà tan trong cùi là 17-21%. Ðộ chua (TA) tính bằng axit xitric khoảng 0,55 % và pH từ 4,0 đến 5,0. Một vườn chôm chôm thường hái làm nhiều lần, cách nhau 3-7 ngày tuỳ giống[2].
Bảo quản quả ở nhiệt độ 25 độ C, khi bảo quản trong môi trường tự nhiên, trọng lượng quả chôm chôm giảm đi rất nhanh do mất nước nhiều. Trọng lượng mất đi sau 5-8 ngày từ 22 % đến 25 %tuỳ theo giống chôm chôm. Nhiệt độc càng cao, trọng lượng mất càng nhiều. Bảo quản trong túi polyetylen (PE) trọng lượng mất ít hơn. Trong thực tế nên bảo quản ở nhiệt độ 10 độ C trong túi PE có đục lỗ, quả còn tốt bán được sau 10 ngày, và trong túi PE kín là sau 12 ngày

Lợi ích

Chôm chôm là loài cây có quả hoặc để ăn tươi, hoặc đóng hộp dưới nhiều hình thức, để dự trữ hoặc xuất khẩu. Hạt chôm chôm có thành phần dầu cao nên cũng được dùng để sản xuất dầu ăn hay xà phòng. Cây và rễ chôm chôm cũng có thể dùng cho việc sản xuất dược phẩm và màu. Ở Việt Nam, người làm vườn chôm chôm có mức thu nhập tương đối cao so với các ngành trồng trọt khác.

Các giống chôm chôm tại Việt Nam

Ở Việt Nam, việc lai tạo hoặc chọn cây ưu tú từ các giống nhập đều chưa được thực hiện[2]. Trong nước, có các quần thể sau:
Chôm chôm dính: cùi dính hạt, hương vị không ổn định[2].
Chôm chôm Giava: tên chung chỉ các giống nhập nội từ Indonesia, Thái Lan. Trồng phổ biến ở Bến Tre, Ðồng Nai, Vĩnh Long, cung cấp đại bộ phận bán quả trong nước. Ðặc tính chính là cùi không dính hạt (chôm chôm trốc) nhưng khi bóc ra, cùi lại dính với vỏ ngoài cuả hạt[2].
Chôm chôm nhãn: Quả nhỏ chỉ độ 15-20 g so với 30-40 g ở chôm chôm Giava. Gai ngắn, mã quả không đẹp. Cùi khô, giòn, hương vị tốt, giá bán cao hơn so với chôm chôm Giava. Tỉ lệ trồng còn rất thấp[2].
Gần đây mới nhập một số giống chôm chôm của Thái Lan, Malaysia nhưng chưa đủ thời gian để theo dõi và giới thiệu

**** www.khoahocchonhanong.com.vn/csdlkhcn/modules.php?name=Ne…

**** www.bentre.gov.vn/index.php?option=com_content&task=v…

**** www.dost-bentre.gov.vn/cay-trai-ben-tre/cay-chom-chom/244…

_________________________________________________________

**** www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/rambutan.html
Rambutan
Nephelium lappaceum L.
Euphoria nephelium DC.
Dimocarpus crinita Lour.

Though a close relative of the lychee and an equally desirable fruit, this member of the Sapindaceae is not nearly as well-known. Botanically, it is Nephelium lappaceum L. (syns. Euphoria nephelium DC.; Dimocarpus crinita Lour.). In the vernacular, it is generally called rambutan (in French, ramboutan or ramboutanier; in Dutch, ramboetan); occasionally in India, ramboostan. To the Chinese it is shao tzu, to Vietnamese, chom chom or vai thieu; to Kampucheans, ser mon, or chle sao mao. There are other local names in the various dialects of southeast Asia and the East Indies.

Plate XXXIV: RAMBUTAN, Nephelium lappaceum Painted by Dr. M.J. Dijkman Description
The rambutan tree reaches 50 to 80 ft (15-25 m) in height, has a straight trunk to 2 ft (60 cm) wide, and a dense, usually spreading crown. The evergreen leaves are alternate, pinnately compound, 2 3/4 to 12 in (7-30 cm) long, with reddish rachis, hairy when young, and 1 to 4 pairs of leaflets, subopposite or alternate, elliptic to oblong-elliptic, or rather obovate, sometimes oblique at the base; slightly leathery; yellowish-green to dark-green and somewhat dull on the upper surface, yellowish or bluish-green beneath; 2 to 8 in (5-20 cm) long, 1 to 4 1/3 in (2.5-11 cm) wide, the 6 to 15 pairs of principal veins prominent on the underside. The small, petalless flowers, of three kinds: males, hermaphrodite functioning as males, and hermaphrodite functioning as females, are borne in axillary or pseudo-terminal, much branched, hairy panicles. The fruit is ovoid, or ellipsoid, pinkish-red, bright-or deep-red, orange-red, maroon or dark-purple, yellowish-red, or all yellow or orange-yellow; 1 1/3 to 3 1/8 in (3.4-8 cm) long. Its thin, leathery rind is covered with tubercles from each of which extends a soft, fleshy, red, pinkish, or yellow spine 1/5 to 3/4 in (0.5-2 cm) long, the tips deciduous in some types. The somewhat hairlike covering is responsible for the common name of the fruit, which is based on the Malay word "rambut", meaning "hair". Within is the white or rose-tinted, translucent, juicy, acid, subacid or sweet flesh, 1/6 to 1/3 in (0.4-0.8 cm) thick, adhering more or less to the ovoid or oblong, somewhat flattened seed, which is 1 to 1 1/3 in (2.5-3.4 cm) long and 2/5 to 3/5 in (1-1.5 cm) wide. There may be 1 or 2 small undeveloped fruits nestled close to the stem of a mature fruit.

Climate
The rambutan flourishes from sea-level to 1,600 or even 1,800 ft (500-600 m), in tropical, humid regions having well-distributed rainfall. In the ideal environment of Oriental Mindora Philippines, the average temperature year-round is about 81º F (27.3º C), relative humidity is 82%, rainfall 71 in (180 cm)-about 165 rainy days. The dry season should not last much over 3 months.

Soil
The tree does best on deep, clay-loam or rich sandy loam rich in organic matter, or in deep peat. It needs good drainage.

Propagation
Rambutan seeds, after removal from the fruit and thorough washing, should be planted horizontally with the flattened side downward in order that the seedling will grow straight and have a normal, strong root system. Seeds will germinate in 9 to 25 days, the earlier, the more vigor in the seedling. The rate of germination of 2-day-old seeds is 87% to 95%. A week after seed removal from the fruit, there may be only 50% to 65% germination. Sun-drying for 8 hours and oven-drying at 86º F (30º C) kills seeds within a week. Washed seeds will remain viable in moist sawdust, sphagnum moss or charcoal for 3-4 weeks, and some will even sprout in storage. The juice of the flesh inhibits germination. Accordingly, unwashed seeds or seeds treated with the juice can be held for a month in moist sawdust without sprouting.
Rambutan seedlings bear in 5-6 years, but the ratio of female to male trees is 4 or 5 to 7. One Philippine seedling orchard was found to have 67% male trees. Then, too, hardly 5% of female trees give a profitable yield. Vegetative propagation is essential.
Cuttings have been rooted experimentally under mist and with the use of growth-promoting hormones, but this technique is not being practiced. Air-layering may at first appear successful, but many air-layers die after being transplanted into 5-gal containers, or, later, in the field, long after separation from the mother tree.
Marching is very effective onto 5- to 9-month-old seedlings of rambutan or of pulasan (N. mutabile L.) or N. intermedium Radlk., but is a rather cumbersome procedure. After 2 or 3 months, the scion is notched 3 times over a period of 2 weeks and then severed from the parent tree. Cleft-, splice-, and side-grafting are not too satisfactory. Patch-budding is preferred as having a much greater rate of success. Seedlings for use as rootstocks are taken from the seedbed after 45 days and transplanted into 1-quart cans with a mixture of 50% cured manure and later transferred to 5 gal containers. In Oriental Mindoro Province, if the budding is done in the month of May, they can achieve 83.6% success; if done in June and July, 82%. Budded trees flower 2 1/2 to 3 years after planting in the field.

Culture
In the Philippines, it is recommended that the trees be planted at least 33 ft (10 m) apart each way, though 40 ft (12 m) is not too much in rich soil. If the trees are set too close to each other, they will become overcrowded in a few years and production will be seriously affected.
Philippine agronomists apply 2.2 lbs (1 kg) ammonium sulfate together with 2.2 lbs (1 kg) complete fertilizer (12-24-12) per tree immediately after harvest and give the same amount of ammonium sulfate to each tree near the end of the rainy season. Studies in Malaya show that a harvest of 6,000 lbs/acre (6,720 kg/ha) of rambutan fruits removes from the soil 15 lbs/acre (approximately 15 kg/ha) nitrogen, 2 lbs/acre (2 kg/ha) phosphorus, 11.5 lbs/acre (11.5 kg/ha) potassium, 5.9 lbs/acre (5.9 kg/ha) calcium, and 2.67 lbs/acre (2.67 kg/ha) magnesium.
Irrigation is given as needed in dry seasons. Light pruning is done only to improve the form of the tree and strengthen it. Rambutan trees should be sheltered from strong winds which do much damage during the flowering and fruiting periods.

Harvesting
In Malaya, the rambutan generally fruits twice a year, the first, main crop in June and a lesser one in December. In the Philippines, flowering occurs from late March to early May and the fruits mature from July to October or occasionally to November.
The entire fruit cluster is cut from the branch by harvesters. If single fruits are picked, they should be snapped off with a piece of the stem attached, so as not to rupture the rind. The fruits must be handled carefully to avoid bruising and crushing, and kept dry, cool, and well-ventilated to delay spoilage.

Yield
Generally, shoots that bear fruit one year will put out new growth and will bloom and fruit the next year, so that biennial bearing is rare in the rambutan. However, yield may vary from year to year. Individual trees 8 years old or older have borne as much as 440 lbs (200 kg) one season and only 132 lbs (60 kg) the next. In the Philippines, the average production per tree of 21 selections was 264 lbs (120 kg) over a 4-year period, while the general average is only 106 lbs (48 kg).
From 1965 to 1967, agronomists at the College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, studied the growth, flowering habits and yield of the Indonesian cultivars, ‘Seematjan’, ‘Seenjonja’, and ‘Maharlika’. They found that all the ‘Seematjan’ flowers were hermaphrodite functioning as female (h.f.f.) and that it is necessary to plant male trees with this cultivar. ‘Seenjonja’ and ‘Maharlika’ flowers were mostly h.f.f. with a very few hermaphrodite functioning as males (h.f.m.) in the same panicles, and concluded that, though self-pollination is possible, planting of male trees with these cultivars should improve production.

Keeping Quality
Ordinarily, the fruits must be gotten to local markets within 3 days of picking before shriveling and decay begin. Fungicidal applications and packing in perforated polyethylene bags have extended fresh life somewhat. Weight loss has been reduced by packing in sawdust, or coating with a wax emulsion. Storing in sealed polyethylene bags at 40º F (10º C) and 95% relative humidity has preserved the fruits in fresh condition for 12 days. Some cultivars, as noted, keep better than others.

Pests and Diseases
Few pests or diseases have been reported by rambutan growers. Leaf-eating insects, the mealybug, Pseudococcus lilacinus, and the giant bug, Tessaratoma longicorne, may require control measures. The mango twig-borer, Niphonoclea albata, occasionally appears on rambutan trees. The Oriental fruit fly attacks very ripe fruits. Birds and flying foxes (fruit-eating bats) consume many of the fruits, probably considerably reducing yield figures.
There are several pathogens that attack the fruits and cause rotting under warm, moist conditions. Powdery mildew, caused by Oidium sp., may affect the foliage or other parts of the tree. A serious disease, stem canker, caused by Fomes lignosus in the Philippines and Ophioceras sp. in Malaya, can be fatal to rambutan trees if not controlled at the outset.

Food Uses
Rambutans are most commonly eaten out-of-hand after merely tearing the rind open, or cutting it around the middle and pulling it off. It does not cling to the flesh. The peeled fruits are occasionally stewed as dessert. They are canned in sirup on a limited scale. In Malaya a preserve is made by first boiling the peeled fruit to separate the flesh from the seeds. After cooling, the testa is discarded and the seeds are boiled alone until soft. They are combined with the flesh and plenty of sugar for about 20 minutes, and 3 cloves may be added before sealing in jars. The seeds are sometimes roasted and eaten in the Philippines, although they are reputedly poisonous when raw.

Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion*
Moisture82.3 g
Protein0.46 g
Total Carbohydrates16.02 g
Reducing Sugars2.9 g
Sucrose5.8 g
Fiber0.24g
Calcium10.6 mg
Phosphorus12.9 mg
Ascorbic Acid30 mg

*Analyses made in Ceylon.

Toxicity
There are traces of an alkaloid in the seed, and the testa contains saponin and tannin. The seeds are said to be bitter and narcotic. The fruit rind also is said to contain a toxic saponin and tannin.

Other Uses
Seed fat: the seed kernel yields 37-43% of a solid, white fat or tallow resembling cacao butter. When heated, it becomes a yellow oil having an agreeable scent. Its fatty acids are: palmitic, 2.0%; stearic, 13.8%; arachidic, 34.7%; oleic, 45.3%; and ericosenoic, 4.2%. Fully saturated glycerides amount to 1.4%. The oil could be used in making soap and candles if it were available in greater quantity.
Wood: The tree is seldom felled. However, the wood–red, reddish-white, or brownish–is suitable for construction though apt to split unless carefully dried.
Medicinal Uses: The fruit (perhaps unripe) is astringent, stomachic; acts as a vermifuge, febrifuge, and is taken to relieve diarrhea and dysentery. The leaves are poulticed on the temples to alleviate headache. In Malaya the dried fruit rind is sold in drugstores and employed in local medicine. The astringent bark decoction is a remedy for thrush. A decoction of the roots is taken as a febrifuge.

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**** www.stuartxchange.org/Rambutan.html
Botany
An evergreen, bushy tree, growing to a height of 20 meters, with a dense, low, round and spreading crown. Leaves are pinnately compound, 15 to 40 cm long, with 3 to 8 leaflets. The leaflet is elliptic, 7.5 to 20 cm long and 3.5 to 8 cm wide. Flowers are greenish white, fragrant, very small, without petals borne on axillary pannicles. Fruit is oblong, 4 to 5 cm long, red to yellow, covered with thick, coarse hairs or soft spines. Pulp is edible, white, opaque, translucent, juicy and sweet.

Distribution
Cultivated in most parts of the Philippines.
Parts utilized:
Roots, leaves and bark.

Chemical constituents and properties
• Seeds yield 40-48 % rambutan tallow. The insoluble fatty acids of the tallow contain about 45 percent oleic acid. The tallow contains abundant arachin, some stearin and olein. The seeds have traces of an alkaloid. The testa of the seed is toxic due to the presence of Nephelium saponin and tannin.
• Fruit is considered astringent, stomachic, vermifuge, febrifuge.

Insert
Ripe rambutan fruit.

Uses
Folkloric
Root decoction for fevers.
Leaves for poulticing.
Bark used as astringent for tongue maladies.
Fruit used for dysentery and as warm carminative in dyspepsia.
Fruit decoction used for diarrhea and dysentery.
In Malaya, astringent bark is used as remedy for thrush. Decoction of roots taken as febrifuge. source
Others
Elsewhere, seed used to extract oil; also roasted and eaten.

Studies
• Antioxidant / Antibacterial: Study yielded high amounts of phenolic compounds in the peel extracts, highest in the methanolic extract, exhibiting higher antioxidant activity than the seed extracts. All peel extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against five pathogenic bacteria.
• Phytochemicals / Monoterpene Lactones: Study isolated two new diasteromeric monoterpene lactones 1 and 2. Both underwent antimicrobial testing.
• Antioxidant in Rinds: The normally discarded rind was found to have extremely high antioxidant activity. The study of the extract revealed high phenolic content, low pro-oxidant capacity and strong antioxidant activity with cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potentials.
• Antiviral / AntiHerpes: Tested for anti HSV-1 virus activity, N lappaceum significantly affected the development of skin lesions and reduced mortality.

Availability
Cultivated.

**** www.tropilab.com/rambutan.html

Close up of flowers of Nephelium lappaceum, Rambutan ….Chụp gần hoa Chôm Chôm ….#4
Weight loss tips
Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Hoa rất nhỏ, chỉ chừng 2mm .

Flowers are very tiny, tiny , about 2mm .

Chụp hình ở xã Trung An , huyện Củ Chi, thành phố Hồ chí Minh, miền Nam Vietnam

Taken in Trung An ward, Củ Chi district, Hồ chí MInh city , South Vietnam

Vietnamese named : Chôm Chôm
Common names : Rambutan
Scientist name : Nephelium lappaceum L.
Synonyms : Euphoria nephelium DC., Dimocarpus crinita Lour.
Family : Sapindaceae. Họ Bồ Hòn
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Sapindales
Genus:Nephelium
Species:N. lappaceum

Links :

**** vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ch%C3%B4m_ch%C3%B4m
Chôm chôm (danh pháp khoa học: Nephelium lappaceum L.) là loài cây vùng nhiệt đới Đông Nam Á, thuộc họ Sapindaceae (họ bồ hòn). Tên gọi chôm chôm (hay lôm chôm) tượng hình cho trạng thái lông của quả loài cây này. Lông cũng là đặc tính cơ bản trong việc đặt tên của người Trung Quốc: hồng mao đan, hay của người Mã Lai: rambutan (trái có lông). Các nước phương Tây mượn giọng đọc của Mã Lai để gọi cây/trái chôm chôm: Anh, Đức gọi là rambutan, Pháp gọi là ramboutan…

Đặc tính

Cây chôm chôm có thể cao 8 tới 10 m, lá đơn, phiến lá hình trái xoan, đầu và đuôi lá nhọn, mọc cách. Lá nhỏ màu xanh non, khi già xanh đậm. Ngọn búp có lớp bao màu hơi đỏ. Hoa từng chùm ở đầu cành, đài từ 3 đến 5 mm, tỏa mùi thơm dịu. Thời gian trái chín khoảng 15-18 tuần sau khi kết quả. Mỗi chùm đậu quả độ trên dưới 20 trái. Mỗi năm chôm chôm có 1 mùa trái, nếu chăm sóc có kĩ thuật có thể cho 2 mùa trái. Mỗi cây trưởng thành có thể cho thu hoạch từ 5.000 đến 6.000 trái mỗi mùa (độ 60-70 kg).
Loài chôm chôm Nephelium lappaceum L. được gây giống ngoài 200 giống.
Chôm chôm cùng họ với vải, nhãn, giống nhau về đặc tính thực vật, phần ăn được cũng là cùi (cơm) và hương vị cũng giống nhau

Xuất xứ

Cây chôm chôm là giống cây trồng khởi nguyên ở Đông Nam Á. Ngày nay được trồng trong vùng có vĩ độ từ 15° nam tới 15° bắc gồm châu Phi, châu Đại Dương, Trung Mỹ và đặc biệt càng ngày càng gia tăng ở Úc châu và quần đảo Hawai. Cây chôm chôm thích ứng cho những vùng đất không ngập nước. Do đó, ở Việt Nam, chôm chôm được trồng chủ yếu ở các tỉnh thuộc lưu vực sông Đồng Nai và nam Trung Bộ.

Gieo trồng

Chôm chôm có thể nhân giống bằng hạt hoặc chiết cành, ghép mắt. Hoa chôm chôm hoặc có giống đực, hoặc có 2 giống, không có khả năng tự thụ phấn để tạo quả, cần có côn trùng (ong bướm) để phân nhụy.

Thu hoạch và bảo quản

Từ khi nở hoa cho đến lúc chín, cần khoảng 100- 120 ngày ở miền Nam. Mùa quả chín từ tháng 5-8. Quả chín, màu sắc vỏ thay đổi, hất hoà tan trong cùi là 17-21%. Ðộ chua (TA) tính bằng axit xitric khoảng 0,55 % và pH từ 4,0 đến 5,0. Một vườn chôm chôm thường hái làm nhiều lần, cách nhau 3-7 ngày tuỳ giống[2].
Bảo quản quả ở nhiệt độ 25 độ C, khi bảo quản trong môi trường tự nhiên, trọng lượng quả chôm chôm giảm đi rất nhanh do mất nước nhiều. Trọng lượng mất đi sau 5-8 ngày từ 22 % đến 25 %tuỳ theo giống chôm chôm. Nhiệt độc càng cao, trọng lượng mất càng nhiều. Bảo quản trong túi polyetylen (PE) trọng lượng mất ít hơn. Trong thực tế nên bảo quản ở nhiệt độ 10 độ C trong túi PE có đục lỗ, quả còn tốt bán được sau 10 ngày, và trong túi PE kín là sau 12 ngày

Lợi ích

Chôm chôm là loài cây có quả hoặc để ăn tươi, hoặc đóng hộp dưới nhiều hình thức, để dự trữ hoặc xuất khẩu. Hạt chôm chôm có thành phần dầu cao nên cũng được dùng để sản xuất dầu ăn hay xà phòng. Cây và rễ chôm chôm cũng có thể dùng cho việc sản xuất dược phẩm và màu. Ở Việt Nam, người làm vườn chôm chôm có mức thu nhập tương đối cao so với các ngành trồng trọt khác.

Các giống chôm chôm tại Việt Nam

Ở Việt Nam, việc lai tạo hoặc chọn cây ưu tú từ các giống nhập đều chưa được thực hiện[2]. Trong nước, có các quần thể sau:
Chôm chôm dính: cùi dính hạt, hương vị không ổn định[2].
Chôm chôm Giava: tên chung chỉ các giống nhập nội từ Indonesia, Thái Lan. Trồng phổ biến ở Bến Tre, Ðồng Nai, Vĩnh Long, cung cấp đại bộ phận bán quả trong nước. Ðặc tính chính là cùi không dính hạt (chôm chôm trốc) nhưng khi bóc ra, cùi lại dính với vỏ ngoài cuả hạt[2].
Chôm chôm nhãn: Quả nhỏ chỉ độ 15-20 g so với 30-40 g ở chôm chôm Giava. Gai ngắn, mã quả không đẹp. Cùi khô, giòn, hương vị tốt, giá bán cao hơn so với chôm chôm Giava. Tỉ lệ trồng còn rất thấp[2].
Gần đây mới nhập một số giống chôm chôm của Thái Lan, Malaysia nhưng chưa đủ thời gian để theo dõi và giới thiệu

**** www.khoahocchonhanong.com.vn/csdlkhcn/modules.php?name=Ne…

**** www.bentre.gov.vn/index.php?option=com_content&task=v…

**** www.dost-bentre.gov.vn/cay-trai-ben-tre/cay-chom-chom/244…

_________________________________________________________

**** www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/rambutan.html
Rambutan
Nephelium lappaceum L.
Euphoria nephelium DC.
Dimocarpus crinita Lour.

Though a close relative of the lychee and an equally desirable fruit, this member of the Sapindaceae is not nearly as well-known. Botanically, it is Nephelium lappaceum L. (syns. Euphoria nephelium DC.; Dimocarpus crinita Lour.). In the vernacular, it is generally called rambutan (in French, ramboutan or ramboutanier; in Dutch, ramboetan); occasionally in India, ramboostan. To the Chinese it is shao tzu, to Vietnamese, chom chom or vai thieu; to Kampucheans, ser mon, or chle sao mao. There are other local names in the various dialects of southeast Asia and the East Indies.

Plate XXXIV: RAMBUTAN, Nephelium lappaceum Painted by Dr. M.J. Dijkman Description
The rambutan tree reaches 50 to 80 ft (15-25 m) in height, has a straight trunk to 2 ft (60 cm) wide, and a dense, usually spreading crown. The evergreen leaves are alternate, pinnately compound, 2 3/4 to 12 in (7-30 cm) long, with reddish rachis, hairy when young, and 1 to 4 pairs of leaflets, subopposite or alternate, elliptic to oblong-elliptic, or rather obovate, sometimes oblique at the base; slightly leathery; yellowish-green to dark-green and somewhat dull on the upper surface, yellowish or bluish-green beneath; 2 to 8 in (5-20 cm) long, 1 to 4 1/3 in (2.5-11 cm) wide, the 6 to 15 pairs of principal veins prominent on the underside. The small, petalless flowers, of three kinds: males, hermaphrodite functioning as males, and hermaphrodite functioning as females, are borne in axillary or pseudo-terminal, much branched, hairy panicles. The fruit is ovoid, or ellipsoid, pinkish-red, bright-or deep-red, orange-red, maroon or dark-purple, yellowish-red, or all yellow or orange-yellow; 1 1/3 to 3 1/8 in (3.4-8 cm) long. Its thin, leathery rind is covered with tubercles from each of which extends a soft, fleshy, red, pinkish, or yellow spine 1/5 to 3/4 in (0.5-2 cm) long, the tips deciduous in some types. The somewhat hairlike covering is responsible for the common name of the fruit, which is based on the Malay word "rambut", meaning "hair". Within is the white or rose-tinted, translucent, juicy, acid, subacid or sweet flesh, 1/6 to 1/3 in (0.4-0.8 cm) thick, adhering more or less to the ovoid or oblong, somewhat flattened seed, which is 1 to 1 1/3 in (2.5-3.4 cm) long and 2/5 to 3/5 in (1-1.5 cm) wide. There may be 1 or 2 small undeveloped fruits nestled close to the stem of a mature fruit.

Climate
The rambutan flourishes from sea-level to 1,600 or even 1,800 ft (500-600 m), in tropical, humid regions having well-distributed rainfall. In the ideal environment of Oriental Mindora Philippines, the average temperature year-round is about 81º F (27.3º C), relative humidity is 82%, rainfall 71 in (180 cm)-about 165 rainy days. The dry season should not last much over 3 months.

Soil
The tree does best on deep, clay-loam or rich sandy loam rich in organic matter, or in deep peat. It needs good drainage.

Propagation
Rambutan seeds, after removal from the fruit and thorough washing, should be planted horizontally with the flattened side downward in order that the seedling will grow straight and have a normal, strong root system. Seeds will germinate in 9 to 25 days, the earlier, the more vigor in the seedling. The rate of germination of 2-day-old seeds is 87% to 95%. A week after seed removal from the fruit, there may be only 50% to 65% germination. Sun-drying for 8 hours and oven-drying at 86º F (30º C) kills seeds within a week. Washed seeds will remain viable in moist sawdust, sphagnum moss or charcoal for 3-4 weeks, and some will even sprout in storage. The juice of the flesh inhibits germination. Accordingly, unwashed seeds or seeds treated with the juice can be held for a month in moist sawdust without sprouting.
Rambutan seedlings bear in 5-6 years, but the ratio of female to male trees is 4 or 5 to 7. One Philippine seedling orchard was found to have 67% male trees. Then, too, hardly 5% of female trees give a profitable yield. Vegetative propagation is essential.
Cuttings have been rooted experimentally under mist and with the use of growth-promoting hormones, but this technique is not being practiced. Air-layering may at first appear successful, but many air-layers die after being transplanted into 5-gal containers, or, later, in the field, long after separation from the mother tree.
Marching is very effective onto 5- to 9-month-old seedlings of rambutan or of pulasan (N. mutabile L.) or N. intermedium Radlk., but is a rather cumbersome procedure. After 2 or 3 months, the scion is notched 3 times over a period of 2 weeks and then severed from the parent tree. Cleft-, splice-, and side-grafting are not too satisfactory. Patch-budding is preferred as having a much greater rate of success. Seedlings for use as rootstocks are taken from the seedbed after 45 days and transplanted into 1-quart cans with a mixture of 50% cured manure and later transferred to 5 gal containers. In Oriental Mindoro Province, if the budding is done in the month of May, they can achieve 83.6% success; if done in June and July, 82%. Budded trees flower 2 1/2 to 3 years after planting in the field.

Culture
In the Philippines, it is recommended that the trees be planted at least 33 ft (10 m) apart each way, though 40 ft (12 m) is not too much in rich soil. If the trees are set too close to each other, they will become overcrowded in a few years and production will be seriously affected.
Philippine agronomists apply 2.2 lbs (1 kg) ammonium sulfate together with 2.2 lbs (1 kg) complete fertilizer (12-24-12) per tree immediately after harvest and give the same amount of ammonium sulfate to each tree near the end of the rainy season. Studies in Malaya show that a harvest of 6,000 lbs/acre (6,720 kg/ha) of rambutan fruits removes from the soil 15 lbs/acre (approximately 15 kg/ha) nitrogen, 2 lbs/acre (2 kg/ha) phosphorus, 11.5 lbs/acre (11.5 kg/ha) potassium, 5.9 lbs/acre (5.9 kg/ha) calcium, and 2.67 lbs/acre (2.67 kg/ha) magnesium.
Irrigation is given as needed in dry seasons. Light pruning is done only to improve the form of the tree and strengthen it. Rambutan trees should be sheltered from strong winds which do much damage during the flowering and fruiting periods.

Harvesting
In Malaya, the rambutan generally fruits twice a year, the first, main crop in June and a lesser one in December. In the Philippines, flowering occurs from late March to early May and the fruits mature from July to October or occasionally to November.
The entire fruit cluster is cut from the branch by harvesters. If single fruits are picked, they should be snapped off with a piece of the stem attached, so as not to rupture the rind. The fruits must be handled carefully to avoid bruising and crushing, and kept dry, cool, and well-ventilated to delay spoilage.

Yield
Generally, shoots that bear fruit one year will put out new growth and will bloom and fruit the next year, so that biennial bearing is rare in the rambutan. However, yield may vary from year to year. Individual trees 8 years old or older have borne as much as 440 lbs (200 kg) one season and only 132 lbs (60 kg) the next. In the Philippines, the average production per tree of 21 selections was 264 lbs (120 kg) over a 4-year period, while the general average is only 106 lbs (48 kg).
From 1965 to 1967, agronomists at the College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, studied the growth, flowering habits and yield of the Indonesian cultivars, ‘Seematjan’, ‘Seenjonja’, and ‘Maharlika’. They found that all the ‘Seematjan’ flowers were hermaphrodite functioning as female (h.f.f.) and that it is necessary to plant male trees with this cultivar. ‘Seenjonja’ and ‘Maharlika’ flowers were mostly h.f.f. with a very few hermaphrodite functioning as males (h.f.m.) in the same panicles, and concluded that, though self-pollination is possible, planting of male trees with these cultivars should improve production.

Keeping Quality
Ordinarily, the fruits must be gotten to local markets within 3 days of picking before shriveling and decay begin. Fungicidal applications and packing in perforated polyethylene bags have extended fresh life somewhat. Weight loss has been reduced by packing in sawdust, or coating with a wax emulsion. Storing in sealed polyethylene bags at 40º F (10º C) and 95% relative humidity has preserved the fruits in fresh condition for 12 days. Some cultivars, as noted, keep better than others.

Pests and Diseases
Few pests or diseases have been reported by rambutan growers. Leaf-eating insects, the mealybug, Pseudococcus lilacinus, and the giant bug, Tessaratoma longicorne, may require control measures. The mango twig-borer, Niphonoclea albata, occasionally appears on rambutan trees. The Oriental fruit fly attacks very ripe fruits. Birds and flying foxes (fruit-eating bats) consume many of the fruits, probably considerably reducing yield figures.
There are several pathogens that attack the fruits and cause rotting under warm, moist conditions. Powdery mildew, caused by Oidium sp., may affect the foliage or other parts of the tree. A serious disease, stem canker, caused by Fomes lignosus in the Philippines and Ophioceras sp. in Malaya, can be fatal to rambutan trees if not controlled at the outset.

Food Uses
Rambutans are most commonly eaten out-of-hand after merely tearing the rind open, or cutting it around the middle and pulling it off. It does not cling to the flesh. The peeled fruits are occasionally stewed as dessert. They are canned in sirup on a limited scale. In Malaya a preserve is made by first boiling the peeled fruit to separate the flesh from the seeds. After cooling, the testa is discarded and the seeds are boiled alone until soft. They are combined with the flesh and plenty of sugar for about 20 minutes, and 3 cloves may be added before sealing in jars. The seeds are sometimes roasted and eaten in the Philippines, although they are reputedly poisonous when raw.

Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion*
Moisture82.3 g
Protein0.46 g
Total Carbohydrates16.02 g
Reducing Sugars2.9 g
Sucrose5.8 g
Fiber0.24g
Calcium10.6 mg
Phosphorus12.9 mg
Ascorbic Acid30 mg

*Analyses made in Ceylon.

Toxicity
There are traces of an alkaloid in the seed, and the testa contains saponin and tannin. The seeds are said to be bitter and narcotic. The fruit rind also is said to contain a toxic saponin and tannin.

Other Uses
Seed fat: the seed kernel yields 37-43% of a solid, white fat or tallow resembling cacao butter. When heated, it becomes a yellow oil having an agreeable scent. Its fatty acids are: palmitic, 2.0%; stearic, 13.8%; arachidic, 34.7%; oleic, 45.3%; and ericosenoic, 4.2%. Fully saturated glycerides amount to 1.4%. The oil could be used in making soap and candles if it were available in greater quantity.
Wood: The tree is seldom felled. However, the wood–red, reddish-white, or brownish–is suitable for construction though apt to split unless carefully dried.
Medicinal Uses: The fruit (perhaps unripe) is astringent, stomachic; acts as a vermifuge, febrifuge, and is taken to relieve diarrhea and dysentery. The leaves are poulticed on the temples to alleviate headache. In Malaya the dried fruit rind is sold in drugstores and employed in local medicine. The astringent bark decoction is a remedy for thrush. A decoction of the roots is taken as a febrifuge.

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Botany
An evergreen, bushy tree, growing to a height of 20 meters, with a dense, low, round and spreading crown. Leaves are pinnately compound, 15 to 40 cm long, with 3 to 8 leaflets. The leaflet is elliptic, 7.5 to 20 cm long and 3.5 to 8 cm wide. Flowers are greenish white, fragrant, very small, without petals borne on axillary pannicles. Fruit is oblong, 4 to 5 cm long, red to yellow, covered with thick, coarse hairs or soft spines. Pulp is edible, white, opaque, translucent, juicy and sweet.

Distribution
Cultivated in most parts of the Philippines.
Parts utilized:
Roots, leaves and bark.

Chemical constituents and properties
• Seeds yield 40-48 % rambutan tallow. The insoluble fatty acids of the tallow contain about 45 percent oleic acid. The tallow contains abundant arachin, some stearin and olein. The seeds have traces of an alkaloid. The testa of the seed is toxic due to the presence of Nephelium saponin and tannin.
• Fruit is considered astringent, stomachic, vermifuge, febrifuge.

Insert
Ripe rambutan fruit.

Uses
Folkloric
Root decoction for fevers.
Leaves for poulticing.
Bark used as astringent for tongue maladies.
Fruit used for dysentery and as warm carminative in dyspepsia.
Fruit decoction used for diarrhea and dysentery.
In Malaya, astringent bark is used as remedy for thrush. Decoction of roots taken as febrifuge. source
Others
Elsewhere, seed used to extract oil; also roasted and eaten.

Studies
• Antioxidant / Antibacterial: Study yielded high amounts of phenolic compounds in the peel extracts, highest in the methanolic extract, exhibiting higher antioxidant activity than the seed extracts. All peel extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against five pathogenic bacteria.
• Phytochemicals / Monoterpene Lactones: Study isolated two new diasteromeric monoterpene lactones 1 and 2. Both underwent antimicrobial testing.
• Antioxidant in Rinds: The normally discarded rind was found to have extremely high antioxidant activity. The study of the extract revealed high phenolic content, low pro-oxidant capacity and strong antioxidant activity with cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potentials.
• Antiviral / AntiHerpes: Tested for anti HSV-1 virus activity, N lappaceum significantly affected the development of skin lesions and reduced mortality.

Availability
Cultivated.

**** www.tropilab.com/rambutan.html

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